It has been found also that valence and arousal interact in affecting duration judgments [ 3 ]: Mr Ahmed was a contractor at Emotient for 32 hours on a project unrelated to pain and unrelated to health care. Verbal ratings of pain did not differentiate the experience of patients and controls; however, measurement of pain expression revealed a distinctly different, enhanced dose-response relationship between level of stimulation and pain expression. For pain-intensity estimation, all videos were used, with ratings across the full NRS scale of 0 to Moreover, opening of the mouth which is often not considered as pain-relevant was the most frequently displayed movement in PD patients, whereas eye-narrowing was the most frequent movement in controls. Brain responses to facial expressions of pain: Genuine, suppressed and faked facial expressions of pain in children.
J Diag Med Sonogr.
Assessing pain by facial expression: Facial expression as nexus
Condition-specific effects were estimated according to the GLM and compared using linear contrasts. Open in a separate window. The resulting underestimation of the duration is due to the loss of some pulses [ 30 ]. The individuals whose pictures were included in this manuscript have given written informed consent as outlined in PLOS consent form to publish these case details. Does It Look Painful or Disgusting? Recommended articles Citing articles 0. However, actual noxious stimulation is conceivably more arousing than the observation of facial expressions of pain, especially when the latter are implicitly processed; therefore, the behavioral effect of observing pain expressions revealed in our experiment may not be necessarily similar to what happens during actual pain perception.